Infertility in Men – Guide To Parenthood

Infertility in males is a frequent condition that affects many couples attempting to conceive. It is described as the failure to obtain pregnancy after a year of frequent, unprotected sexual intercourse. Despite the high rate of male Infertility, many men may not know the primary reasons or available treatment choices.

Signs of low sperm count in males

Low sperm count, also known as oligozoospermia, is a common condition affecting millions of men globally. It refers to the decrease in sperm produced and released during ejaculation, reducing how to increase sperm count.

Common Symptoms


Infertility is the most significant symptom of low sperm count. If you and your companion have been trying to conceive for one year or more without success, it may be a sign that you have a low sperm count.

Erectile dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction, or the inability to achieve or maintain an erection, is another sign of low sperm count. This is because low sperm count can result from hormonal imbalances that affect the production of sperm.

Decreased libido

A decrease in libido, or sexual desire, can also signify low sperm count. The low sperm count may cause hormonal imbalances that affect the sexual drive.

Painful ejaculation

Painful ejaculation is another sign of low sperm count. Various factors, including hormonal imbalances, infections, and other underlying medical conditions, can cause this.

Symptoms of Infertility in Men

Infertility is a condition that affects and influences millions of couples worldwide. While Infertility is often associated with women, it is essential to note that men also play a significant role in Infertility. Male Infertility is the sole cause of approximately 30% of couples’ inability to conceive.

Low Sperm Count

One of the most common symptoms of Infertility in men is a low sperm count. The definition of a low sperm count refers to fewer than 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen. A low sperm count rate can make it difficult or even impossible for a couple to conceive. Some causes of a low sperm count include hormonal imbalances, genetic conditions, and environmental factors such as exposure to chemicals or radiation.

Abnormal Sperm Shape

Another common symptom of Infertility in men is abnormal sperm shape. This means that the sperm is misshapen or malformed and unable to fertilize an egg. Genetic, medical conditions and lifestyle factors such as smoking or excessive alcohol consumption can cause abnormal sperm shape.

Erectile Dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction is another common symptom of Infertility in men. This condition can make it difficult or impossible for a man to achieve or maintain an erection, which can prevent him from having sexual intercourse. Various factors, including age, medical conditions, and lifestyle factors, such as excessive alcohol consumption or smoking, can cause erectile dysfunction.

Poor Semen Quality

Poor semen quality is another common symptom of Infertility in men. The definition of poor semen quality refers to a semen sample that does not contain enough healthy sperm or does not have the right consistency to fertilize an egg. Various factors, including genetic conditions, medical conditions, and lifestyle factors, such as exposure to chemicals or radiation, can cause poor semen quality.

Pain During Ejaculation

Pain during ejaculation is another common symptom of Infertility in men. Various factors, including infections, medical conditions, and lifestyle factors, such as excessive alcohol consumption or smoking, can cause this. Pain during ejaculation can make it difficult or even impossible for a man to have sexual intercourse and conceive.

Causes of Male Infertility

Causes of male Infertility refer to various factors, ranging from lifestyle choices to medical conditions. It is crucial for men to be aware of the reasons and to take steps to address them. This can include lifestyle changes, medical treatment, and in some cases, assisted reproductive technologies. If you feel you are facing Infertility, we recommend you speak with a male fertility doctor to find the best course of action.

Infertility in Men – Guide To Parenthood Video

Lifestyle factors

  • Smoking
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Drug use
  • Obesity
  • Lack of physical activity

Medical conditions

  • Varicocele
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Infections (such as STDs)
  • Hormonal imbalances
  • Testicular problems
  • Genetic disorders

Environmental factors

  • Exposure to radiation and toxins
  • Overheating of testicles (e.g., through hot tubs or saunas)
  • Stress


  • As men age, the quality and quantity of their sperm decrease.

Diagnosis of Male Infertility

Diagnosis of male Infertility involves a series of tests to determine the root cause of Infertility in a man. The initial step involves a thorough medical history and physical examination, including a semen analysis to evaluate the quality and quantity of sperm. These tests measure hormone levels and genetic testing to check for any genetic abnormalities. Other tests may include a scrotal ultrasound to check for any blockages or structural issues in the reproductive system and a testicular biopsy to examine the quality of sperm production. In some cases, you may perform additional testing, such as a sperm penetration assay or a post-ejaculatory urinalysis. These tests aim to provide an accurate diagnosis and identify any underlying medical conditions contributing to Infertility, allowing for appropriate treatment options.

Male Fertility Tests

The first step to diagnosing male Infertility is to undergo a series of tests to determine the root cause of the problem. Some of the most common male fertility tests include:

  • Semen Analysis: This is the most basic and essential test to assess sperm count, motility, and morphology.
  • Hormonal Analysis: Hormonal imbalances can affect sperm production and cause Infertility. Tests such as testosterone levels, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) can help determine if any hormonal issues affect fertility.
  • Genetic Tests: Genetic conditions can cause Infertility, and a genetic test can help identify these conditions.
  • Scrotal Ultrasound: Male fertility doctors use this test to identify any blockages in the reproductive tract, such as a varicocele or a hydrocele.
  • Testicular Biopsy: Male fertility doctors use this test to diagnose problems with sperm production, and they use local anesthesia to perform this test.
  • Sperm Antibody Testing: Sperm antibodies can cause Infertility, and a sperm antibody test can help determine if this is the cause of the problem.

Male Fertility Test Cost

The cost of male fertility tests can vary depending on the type or sort of test and the location. A basic semen analysis test can cost anywhere from $50 to $200, while a more comprehensive test, such as a testicular biopsy, can cost upwards of $1000.

By understanding the causes and undergoing the appropriate tests, couples can determine the root cause of their Infertility and move forward with a treatment plan that is right for them. If you are struggling with Infertility, speak with your doctor about the male fertility tests available and determine the best course of action for your situation.

Male Infertility Treatment Option

If the issue is a low sperm count or poor sperm motility, a male fertility doctor may prescribe birth control pills like clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins to increase sperm production. For problems with sperm delivery, such as blockages in the vas deferens, surgery may be necessary to remove the obstruction. Additionally, you can increase sperm health and fertility by making lifestyle changes, including lowering weight, stopping smoking, and avoiding alcohol and drugs. In some cases, assisted reproductive technologies like in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be necessary to help couples conceive.

Here are the different men’s fertility treatment options:

Medications for Males Infertility

  1. Clomiphene Citrate: Use this medication to stimulate ovulation in women and increase sperm production in men.
  2. Gonadotropins: These are hormones that stimulate the testicles to produce more sperm.
  3. Testosterone Replacement Therapy: Use this medication to treat low testosterone levels in men, which can lead to Infertility.
  4. Anastrozole: Use this medication to treat high estrogen levels in men, which can affect sperm production.
  5. D-Aspartic Acid: This amino acid raises male testosterone levels and enhances sperm production.
  6. Folic Acid: Use this vitamin to improve sperm quality and increase sperm count in men.
  7. Vitamin E: Use this vitamin to improve sperm motility in men with Infertility.
  8. Zinc Supplements: Zinc is essential for sperm production, and one should use it to improve sperm count and motility in men with Infertility.
  9. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10): Coenzyme Q10 is an antioxidant that improves sperm motility and counts in some studies. It works by helping the body produce energy and protect cells from damage, which can impact sperm health. CoQ10 supplements are available in pill and liquid form, and Doctors recommend taking between 100-300 mg daily.

It is important to note that Infertility in men can have many causes, and not all medications may be effective for every individual. We recommend you consult a male fertility doctor or specialist for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

Surgical procedures for Males Infertility

Male fertility doctors perform several surgical procedures to treat male Infertility, including:

  1. Vasectomy Reversal: This procedure involves reconnecting the tubes that got cut during a vasectomy.
  2. Varicocelectomy: This procedure involves repairing varicoceles and swollen veins in the testicles that can reduce fertility.
  3. Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (MESA): This procedure involves removing sperm from the epididymis, the part of the testicle where sperm is stored.
  4. Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA): This procedure involves removing sperm directly from the testicle.
  5. Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE): This procedure involves removing a small tissue from the testicle to extract sperm.
  6. Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA): This procedure involves removing sperm from the epididymis through a needle.
  7. Microsurgical Vasovasostomy: This procedure involves repairing a vasectomy by connecting the tubes in the scrotum.
  8. Microsurgical Testicular Sperm Extraction (MicroTESE): This procedure involves removing a small tissue from the testicle to extract sperm.

Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART)

Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) for male Infertility include:

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for Males Infertility

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is an assisted reproductive technology (ART) used to treat male Infertility. It is a procedure to inject a single sperm into an egg directly. This is usually performed in the laboratory using in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques.

ICSI is an effective solution for males with low sperm motility, low sperm count, abnormal sperm shape, and other sperm abnormalities. Doctors use it when the sperm cannot fertilize the egg through usual fertilization methods.

The procedure begins with the retrieval of eggs from the female partner through a process known as ovarian stimulation. The laboratory personnel then fertilize the eggs with sperm collected from the male partner. Doctors pick a single sperm and inject it into the egg using a microscopic needle. The resulting embryo is then transferred back into the uterus for implantation.

ICSI has a high success rate and has helped many couples struggling with Infertility to conceive a child. However, it is not without risks, and there is a slight chance of birth disabilities, chromosomal abnormalities, and other complications.

In conclusion, ICSI is an effective solution for male Infertility, and it has helped many couples struggling with Infertility to conceive a child.

Lifestyle changes for Male Infertility

Here are some of the lifestyle changes that men can make to improve their fertility:

Quit smoking

A study confirms the decrease in sperm quality and quantity due to smoking. Research has found that smoking cigarettes can lead to sperm DNA damage, decreased sperm motility, and reduced sperm count. Quitting smoking is one of the most effective ways to improve sperm health and increase the chances of conception.

Maintain a healthy weight.

Obesity can contribute to male Infertility by reducing testosterone levels and increasing oxidative stress. A healthy body weight and regular exercise can help to improve sperm health and boost fertility.

Limit alcohol consumption

Heavy drinking links to decreased sperm production, lower sperm quality, and reduced sperm motility. Limiting alcohol consumption to moderate levels can help to improve sperm health and increase the chances of conception.

Reduce stress

Stress can harm sperm quality and quantity. Relaxation techniques and exercises, such as yoga and meditation, can help to reduce stress levels and improve sperm health.

Improve nutrition

A portion of food rich in vitamins C and E can help to protect sperm from oxidative stress and improve sperm health. Additionally, a diet high in zinc, found in foods such as oysters and beef, can help increase sperm production and improve sperm quality.

Avoid exposure to toxins.

Exposure to toxins, such as pesticides, lead, and certain chemicals, has been linked to decreased sperm quality and quantity. Reducing exposure to these toxins by using protective gear, avoiding certain products, and eating a healthy diet can help to improve sperm health.

Get enough sleep

Lack of sleep links to decreased testosterone levels and sperm quality. Getting enough sleep, typically 7-9 hours per night, can help to improve sperm health and increase the chances of conception.

Acupuncture for Male Infertility

In the case of male Infertility, acupuncturists use acupuncture to stimulate the reproductive organs and improve sperm production and quality. Acupuncturists use several mechanisms to achieve this, including:

  • Improving blood flow to the reproductive organs – Acupuncture can improve circulation, increasing the oxygen and nutrients available to the testes and increasing sperm production.
  • Regulating hormones – Acupuncture can help regulate hormones, such as testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), essential for sperm production.
  • Reducing stress – Stress can negatively affect sperm production and quality. According to a study, acupuncture reduces stress levels, improving sperm production and quality.
  • Improving sperm motility – Acupuncture can improve sperm motility by increasing the energy and circulation in the reproductive organs.

Doctors use acupuncture with other fertility treatments, such as medication and surgery, or as a standalone treatment for male Infertility. Many men find acupuncture a safe and effective option for improving their fertility.

It is important to note that acupuncture is not a quick fix for male Infertility. It may take several weeks or months to see significant results, and treatment success depends on the underlying cause of Infertility. However, many men report improvement in sperm production and quality after a few months of acupuncture treatment.

Acupuncture is also a safe and non-invasive treatment option. The needles are skinny and delicate and cause little discomfort during insertion. Additionally, acupuncture has few side effects, making it a good choice for men looking for a safe and natural way to improve their fertility.

Personal Stories


One man, Joe, had always assumed he would have children one day. He and his wife had been trying to conceive for a year. They finally decided to visit a fertility specialist, where it was a relief that Joe had a low sperm count. He was devastated and felt a profound loss, as though he had let his wife down.

Joe began undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) treatments, which involved injecting sperm directly into the uterus to increase the chances of conception. Although the treatments were successful, they were also physically and emotionally draining. Joe felt immense pressure to perform and often felt self-conscious about the procedure.


Another man, Tom, had a different experience. He had been trying to conceive for two years and finally received a diagnosis of azoospermia, which meant he had no sperm in his semen. He had the option of sperm retrieval surgery, which involved removing sperm directly from his testicles. Despite the potential physical discomfort, Tom felt hopeful about the possibility of having children.

The procedure was successful, and Tom could have a baby with his wife through in vitro fertilization (IVF). Although the process was long and expensive, Tom felt a sense of relief and joy knowing he could finally start a family.


For some men, Infertility can also be due to underlying health issues, such as hormonal imbalances or genetic disorders. One man, David, was diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome, a genetic disorder that affects male fertility. He had always struggled with Infertility and felt a sense of hopelessness, as he had always dreamed of having children.

David underwent testosterone therapy to improve his sperm count, and eventually, he and his wife could conceive through IVF. Although the process was challenging, David felt deeply grateful for the medical advancements that allowed him to start a family.

Infertility can be difficult to bear and an emotional journey for those who undergo it. However, the success stories of men like Joe, Tom, and David demonstrate the hope and resilience of those who have faced Infertility and come out the other side with a family. Whether through IUI, IVF, sperm retrieval surgery, or testosterone therapy, there are various treatment options available for men facing Infertility, and the hope for a family is never lost.

Experts Opinions

According to Dr. Bernstein, many genetic mutations transform from parent to child, so he advises men to undergo laboratory tests for infertility-causing genetic mutations before starting a family. Early detection and treatment can help to increase the chances of conception and prevent the mutation from transforming to the next generation.

Infertility in Men – Guide To Parenthood Video

The impact of environmental pollutants

Environmental pollutants, such as pesticides, heavy metals, and chemicals, can also contribute to male Infertility. Dr. C. Matthew Peterson, a urologist, explains that exposure to these toxins can reduce sperm count, motility, and quality, making it harder for couples to conceive.

Dr. Peterson advises that men limit their exposure to environmental pollutants by eating a healthy diet, avoiding exposure to chemicals, and using protective gear when working in hazardous environments.

The importance of lifestyle choices

Lifestyle choices can also impact male fertility. Dr. Sarah Kimmins, a reproductive endocrinologist, explains that factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet, and lack of physical activity can all negatively impact sperm quality.

Dr. Kimmins advises that men make positive lifestyle changes, such as reducing alcohol intake, engaging in regular physical activity, eating a balanced diet, and quitting smoking, to improve their chances of conceiving a child. She also highlights that men should seek medical help if they have concerns about their fertility and seek treatment early to increase the chances of a successful pregnancy.


Male Infertility is a growing concern for couples trying to start a family. Various factors, including genetics, environmental pollutants, and lifestyle choices, can cause it. Experts agree that early detection and treatment can help to increase the chances of conception and prevent Infertility from being passed down to the next generation. By making positive lifestyle changes, seeking medical help, and limiting exposure to environmental pollutants, men can increase their chances of starting a family and improving their fertility.

Answers to frequently asked questions about Male Infertility and its treatment

Q: What causes male Infertility?

A: Several factors can cause Male Infertility, including low sperm count, abnormal sperm shape or motility, hormonal imbalances, genetic disorders, injury or damage to the reproductive system, exposure to environmental toxins, or lifestyle factors such as excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and a poor diet.

Q: What are the symptoms of male Infertility?

A: The most common symptom of male Infertility is the inability to father a child. However, there may be other symptoms, such as changes in the volume, consistency, or color of semen, decreased libido, and erectile dysfunction.

Q: How is male Infertility diagnosed?

A: A series of tests can diagnose Male Infertility, including a semen analysis, physical exam, and hormonal testing. In some cases, a doctor can ask for further testing to determine the underlying cause of Infertility.

Q: Can male Infertility be treated?

A: Yes, treating male Infertility is possible, depending on the underlying cause. Options for treatment may include medication to increase sperm production or correct hormonal imbalances, surgery to correct physical abnormalities, or assisted reproductive techniques such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intrauterine insemination (IUI).

Q: What are the success rates of male infertility treatments?

A: The success rates of male infertility treatments vary and depend on the underlying cause of Infertility and the chosen treatment. Some medicines, such as IVF or IUI, may have success rates as high as 60-70%, while others may have lower success rates.

Q: Are there any risks associated with male infertility treatments?

A: There may be some risks associated with male infertility treatments, including adverse reactions to medication, complications from surgery, or a higher risk of having multiple pregnancies with assisted reproductive techniques. It is essential to discuss the benefits and potential risks of each treatment possibility with your doctor.

Q: Can lifestyle changes improve male fertility?

A: Yes, making specific lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, reducing alcohol consumption, eating a balanced diet, and exercising regularly, can improve male fertility.

Q: Is there a cure for male Infertility?

A: There is no cure for male Infertility, but its treatment is possible. The best course of action will depend on the underlying cause of Infertility and the chosen treatment.

J. Shaw

Joseph Shaw is a renowned expert with two decades of experience in health and fitness, food, technology, travel, and tourism in the UK. His multifaceted expertise and commitment to excellence have made him a highly respected professional in each field.

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